MONSID logo. Credit Okean Solutions.
Model-Based Off-Nominal State Identification and Detection

Okean Projects and MONSID Applications

MONSID has been extensively tested, verified, and validated, including performance analysis.
More importantly, MONSID has been actively used over a wide variety of actual systems.

JPL Athena Test Rover

MONSID uncovered surprise behaviors, unanticipated interactions between controller and planner, real faults, terrain-induced stalls, motor stalls, hidden/masked faults that would have fooled a traditional monitor.

Okean Solutions supported the three-year JPL Self Reliant Rover strategic initiative to develop and demonstrate autonomy-enabling technologies for Mars rovers. MONSID models of a rover power and mobility subsystems were created and tested with Mars Science Lab telemetry data as well as on the Athena test rover operating in JPL’s Mars Yard. MONSID was able to detect and identify seeded hardware faults as well as expose actual, in-situ software and operational errors. This effort marked the first time that MONSID was successfully tested with real hardware data.


The Athena rover driving in the Mars Yard during MONSID testing. Credit Okean Solutions.

Caltech State-of-the-Art Test Facility

Here's a video the CAST team posted of a recent demo where MONSID was utilized to help them determine when a problem was encountered. MONSID software is showcased in the top 2 charts.

For this demo, the satellite was supposed to adjust orientation around the asteroid (the spud-looking thing on the wall) using its reaction wheels. About 20 seconds into the demo, one of the wheels failed. MONSID detected the failure (the blue line spikes in the top chart) and the information was used by the planner (provided by JPL) to effectively update the plans (and hence switch to other controlling hardware) to allow completion of the originally desired task.

Technology Development


Artist's rendition of the ASTERIA nanosatellite in orbit. Credit NASA/JPL.
  • Developed power subsystem and ACS models for I&T tool (Lunar Flashlight)
  • Integrated with FSW (NASA’s F Prime) and tested with ACS flight data (ASTERIA)
  • Demonstrated on ground-based testbed with injected faults (ASTERIA)


Autonomy Strategic Technology Development (JPL)

Caltech Aerospace Robotics and Control Lab

Reaction wheel and thruster 6-DOF platforms moving in the Caltech Autonomous Robotics and Control Lab during an autonomy demonstration. Credit Okean Solutions.
  • MONSID implemented on reaction wheel and thruster 6-DOF platforms using ROS
  • Identified injected reaction wheel failures
  • Demonstrated onboard fault identification for targeted response


NASA SBIR Phase I 2021 Project: Fault Management Analysis for Model-Centric Systems Engineering Tools

November 19, 2021

This was a SBIR Phase I 6-month project with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that included early technical development to determine the feasibility of the innovation.

This is a broad topic covering innovations to Fault Management (FM) design and implementation for NASA’s spacecraft programs.

The goal is to provide a system capability for management of future spacecraft, including onboard and offboard or ground-based components. Offboard components such as modeling techniques and tools, development environments, and verification and validation (V&V) technologies are needed, provided they contribute to novel or capable on-board fault management.

NASA SBIR Phase I 2021 Project - Advanced FM system modeling and analysis diagram. Credit Okean Solutions.

We proposed to improve FM system modeling and analysis by integrating our MONSID® model-based fault management tool/system with JPL’s Computer Aided Engineering for Systems Architecture (CAESAR) platform, thereby creating greater visibility into the FM process and lowering the barriers to entry for users who are not FM experts. The combined capability would advance the practice of FM to ultimately decrease labor and schedule costs while ensuring FM system robustness and appropriateness.

While the main application is FM design and software development, it could also be used in integration and test (I&T) and operations phases to update onboard FM models and in support of recovery operations.

Read about our approach, objectives, and accomplishments in the full article...

SBIR Phase II 2021 Model-Based Architecture for Responsive Spacecraft Autonomy

June 26, 2021

Okean Solutions culminated a 2-year SBIR Phase II project with the Air Force Research Laboratory for a high-fidelity prototype demonstration of a system that clearly shows how the MONSID® model-based fault management system can be used effectively on Space Superiority missions.

Okean Solutions was awarded the Phase II contract, following a successful Phase I contract, under Topic AF131-092 On-Board Autonomy for Decreased Satellite Response Time.

This topic seeks to develop and demonstrate technologies for embedded satellite autonomy and cited model-based and constraint-based detection systems as examples of the types of technologies that were of interest. The goal is to improve the capability of space assets to respond to real-time events, including faults.

Since MONSID is a model-based system designed for on-board use and is dual-use with commercial applications, it directly supports Air Force needs and is also aligned with stated Air Force and DoD goals to increase adoption of dual-use technologies.

We infused our MONSID system with Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL’s) test and demonstration environment for a progressive, scalable architecture for evaluating onboard spacecraft autonomy.

The testbed is a 3 degree-of-freedom platform with spacecraft attitude control hardware and processors. During this effort we developed diagnostic models of testbed hardware, integrated MONSID with the testbed processors using NASA’s Core Flight System (cFS) framework, and evaluated system performance via a test campaign.

Read about our approach, objectives, and accomplishments in the full article...

NASA SBIR Phase I 2020 Project: Model-based Fault Diagnosis for Autonomous Propellant Management

March 1, 2021

This was a 6-month SBIR Phase I project with Kennedy Space Center that included early technical development to determine the feasibility of the innovation.

The topic covers Autonomous Operations Technologies (AOT) that support activities performed by rocket engine test facilities, propellant servicing systems, processing and launch of vehicles and payloads, and for extended surface operations on the Moon and Mars. AOT performs functions such as systems and components’ fault prediction and diagnostics, anomaly detection, fault detection and isolation, and enables various levels of autonomous control and recovery from faults, where recovery may include system repair and/or reconfiguration.

Infographic of MONSID health assessment system applied to autonomous propellant management. Credit Okean Solutions.

We proposed our MONSID technology in support of Autonomous Propellant Management (APM). MONSID supports autonomous operations technology requirements to reduce operations and maintenance costs and minimizes human in the loop intervention. Applied to propellant management and test facilities, the MONSID technology can provide a critical component for autonomous health management of these systems.

Read about our approach, objectives, and accomplishments in the full article...

Projects Related to MONSID Product Development

MONSID was initially developed under the following Phase I, Phase II, and Phase 2x SBIR projects.

See MONSID on NASA Techport at these links:

  1. Model-Based Off-Nominal State Isolation and Detection System for Autonomous Fault Management, Phase I
  2. Model-Based Off-Nominal State Isolation and Detection System for Autonomous Fault Management, Phase II
  3. Model-Based Off-Nominal State Isolation and Detection System for Autonomous Fault Management, Phase 2X